An unstructured parallel least-squares spectral element solver for incompressible flow problems
The parallelization of the least-squares spectral element formulation of the Stokes problem has recently been discussed for incompressible flow problems on structured grids. In the present work, the extension to unstructured grids is discussed. It will be shown that, to obtain an efficient and scalable method, two different kinds of distribution of data are required involving a rather complicated parallel conversion between the data. Once the data conversion has been performed, a large symmetric positive definite algebraic system has to be solved iteratively. It is well known that the Conjugate Gradient method is a good choice to solve such systems. To improve the convergence rate of the Conjugate Gradient process, both Jacobi and Additive Schwarz preconditioners are applied. The Additive Schwarz preconditioner is based on domain decomposition and can be implemented such that a preconditioning step corresponds to a parallel matrix-by-vector product. The new results reveal that the Additive Schwarz preconditioner is very suitable for the p-refinement version of the least-squares spectral element method. To obtain good portable programs which may run on distributed-memory multiprocessors, networks of workstations as well as shared-memory machines we use MPI (Message Passing Interface). Numerical simulations have been performed to validate the scalability of the different parts of the proposed method. The experiments entailed simulating several large scale incompressible flows on a Cray T3E and on an SGI Origin 3800 with the number of processors varying from one to more than one hundred. The results indicate that the present method has very good parallel scaling properties making it a powerful method for numerical simulations of incompressible flows.