Quantum computers have the potential to outperform classical computers, but are currently limited in their capabilities. One such limitation is the restricted connectivity between qubits, as captured by the hardware's coupling graph. This limitation poses a challenge for running algorithms that require a coupling graph different from what the hardware can provide. To overcome this challenge and fully utilize the hardware, efficient qubit routing strategies are necessary. In this paper, we introduce line-graph qubit routing, a general method for routing qubits when the algorithm's coupling graph is a line graph and the hardware coupling graph is a heavy graph. Line-graph qubit routing is fast, deterministic, and effective; it requires a classical computational cost that scales at most quadratically with the number of gates in the original circuit, while producing a circuit with a SWAP overhead of at most two times the number of two-qubit gates in the original circuit. We implement line-graph qubit routing and demonstrate its effectiveness in mapping quantum circuits on kagome, checkerboard, and shuriken lattices to hardware with heavy-hex, heavy-square, and heavy-square-octagon coupling graphs, respectively. Benchmarking shows the ability of line-graph qubit routing to outperform established general-purpose methods, both in the required classical wall-clock time and in the quality of the solution that is found. Line-graph qubit routing has direct applications in the quantum simulation of lattice-based models and aids the exploration of the capabilities of near-term quantum hardware.