Recently, Apers and Piddock [TQC '23] strengthened the natural connection between quantum walks and electrical networks by considering Kirchhoff's Law and Ohm's Law. In this work, we develop the multidimensional electrical network by defining Kirchhoff's Alternative Law and Ohm's Alternative Law based on the novel multidimensional quantum walk framework by Jeffery and Zur [STOC '23]. This multidimensional electrical network allows us to sample from the electrical flow obtained via a multidimensional quantum walk algorithm and achieve exponential quantum-classical separations for certain graph problems. We first use this framework to find a marked vertex in one-dimensional random hierarchical graphs as defined by Balasubramanian, Li, and Harrow [arXiv '23]. In this work, they generalised the well known exponential quantum-classical separation of the welded tree problem by Childs, Cleve, Deotto, Farhi, Gutmann, and Spielman [STOC '03] to random hierarchical graphs. Our result partially recovers their results with an arguably simpler analysis. Furthermore, by constructing a 3-regular graph based on welded trees, this framework also allows us to show an exponential speedup for the pathfinding problem. This solves one of the open problems by Li [arXiv '23], where they construct a non-regular graph and use the degree information to achieve a similar speedup. In analogy to the connection between the (edge-vertex) incidence matrix of a graph and Kirchhoff's Law and Ohm's Law in an electrical network, we also rebuild the connection between the alternative incidence matrix and Kirchhoff's Alternative Law and Ohm's Alternative Law. By establishing this connection, we expect that the multidimensional electrical network could have more applications beyond quantum walks.
Quantum Computation with Bounded Space
Algorithms and Complexity

D'alessandro, L., & Zur, S. (2023). Multidimensional electrical networks and their application to exponential speedups for graph problems. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2311.07372