Cognitive models provide a substantively meaningful quantitative description of latent cognitive processes. The quantitative formulation of these models supports cumulative theory building and enables strong empirical tests. However, the nonlinearity of these models and pervasive correlations among model parameters pose special challenges when applying cognitive models to data. Firstly, estimating cognitive models typically requires large hierarchical data sets that need to be accommodated by an appropriate statistical structure within the model. Secondly, statistical inference needs to appropriately account for model uncertainty to avoid overconfidence and biased parameter estimates. In the present work, we show how these challenges can be addressed through a combination of Bayesian hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model averaging. To illustrate these techniques, we apply the popular diffusion decision model to data from a collaborative selective influence study.
Psychological Methods
Machine Learning

Böhm, U., Evans, N., Gronau, Q., Matzke, D., Wagenmakers, E.-J., & Heathcote, A. (2023). Inclusion Bayes factors for mixed hierarchical diffusion decision models. Psychological Methods. doi:10.1037/met0000582