The urgent need to decarbonize energy systems gives rise to many challenging areas of interdisciplinary research, bringing together mathematicians, physicists, engineers and economists. Renewable generation, especially wind and solar, is inherently highly variable and difficult to predict. The need to keep power and energy systems balanced on a second-by-second basis gives rise to problems of control and optimization, together with those of the management of liberalized energy markets. On the longer time scales of planning and investment, there are problems of physical and economic design. The papers in the present issue are written by some of the participants in a programme on the mathematics of energy systems which took place at the Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences in Cambridge from January to May 2019-see This article is part of the theme issue 'The mathematics of energy systems'.

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Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Mancarella, P, Moriarty, J, Philpott, A, Veraart, A, Zachary, S, & Zwart, A.P. (2021). Introduction: The mathematics of energy systems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A , 379(2202). doi:10.1098/rsta.2019.0425