A spectral mean for random closed curves
We propose a spectral mean for closed sets described by sample points on their boundaries subject to mis-alignment and noise. We derive maximum likelihood estimators for the model and noise parameters in the Fourier domain. We estimate the unknown mean boundary curve by back-transformation and derive the distribution of the integrated squared error. Mis-alignment is dealt with by means of a shifted parametric diffeomorphism. The method is illustrated on simulated data and applied to photographs of Lake Tana taken by astronauts during a Shuttle mission.