One of the prime goals of the LOD2 project is improving the performance and scalability of RDF storage solutions so that the increasing amount of Linked Open Data (LOD) can be efficiently managed. Virtuoso has been chosen as the basic RDF store for the LOD2 project, and during the project it has been significantly improved by incorporating advanced relational database techniques from MonetDB and Vectorwise, turning it into a compressed column store with vectored execution. This has reduced the performance gap (“RDF tax”) between Virtuoso’s SQL and SPARQL query performance in a way that still respects the “schema-last” nature of RDF. However, by lacking schema information, RDF database systems such as Virtuoso still cannot use advanced relational storage optimizations such as table partitioning or clustered indexes and have to execute SPARQL queries with many self-joins to a triple table, which leads to more join effort than needed in SQL systems. In this chapter, we first discuss the new column store techniques applied to Virtuoso, the enhancements in its cluster parallel version, and show its performance using the popular BSBM benchmark at the unsurpassed scale of 150 billion triples. We finally describe ongoing work in deriving an “emergent” relational schema from RDF data, which can help to close the performance gap between relational-based and RDF-based storage solutions.
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LOD2 - Creating Knowledge out of Interlinked Data
Database Architectures

Boncz, P., Erling, O., & Pham, M.-D. (2014). Advances in Large-Scale RDF Data Management. In Creating Knowledge Out of Interlinked Data. Springer. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-09846-3_2