The study of quantum-mechanical violations of Bell inequalities is motivated by the investigation, and the eventual demonstration, of the nonlocal properties of entanglement. In recent years, Bell inequalities have found a fruitful re-formulation using the language of multiplayer games originating from Computer Science. This paper studies the nonlocal properties of entanglement in the context of the simplest such games, called XOR games. When there are two players, it is well known that the maximum bias --- the advantage over random play --- of players using entanglement can be at most a constant times greater than that of classical players. Recently, P\'{e}rez-Garc\'{i}a et al. [Comm. Math. Phys. 279 (2), 2008] showed that no such bound holds when there are three or more players: the use of entanglement can provide an unbounded advantage, and scale with the number of questions in the game. Their proof relies on non-trivial results from operator space theory, and gives a non-explicit existence proof, leading to a game with a very large number of questions and only a loose control over the local dimension of the players' shared entanglement. We give a new, simple and explicit (though still probabilistic) construction of a family of three-player XOR games which achieve a large quantum-classical gap (QC-gap). This QC-gap is exponentially larger than the one given by P\'{e}rez-Garc\'{i}a et. al. in terms of the size of the game, achieving a QC-gap of order $\sqrt{N}$ with $N^2$ questions per player. In terms of the dimension of the entangled state required, we achieve the same (optimal) QC-gap of $\sqrt{N}$ for a state of local dimension $N$ per player. Moreover, the optimal entangled strategy is very simple, involving observables defined by tensor products of the Pauli matrices. Additionally, we give the first upper bound on the maximal QC-gap in terms of the number of questions per player, showing that our construction is only quadratically off in that respect. Our results rely on probabilistic estimates on the norm of random matrices and higher-order tensors which may be of independent interest.

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Communications in Mathematical Physics
Quantum Computer Science
Algorithms and Complexity

Briët, J, & Vidick, T. (2012). Explicit Lower and Upper Bounds on the Entangled Value of Multiplayer XOR Games. Communications in Mathematical Physics.