[PNA-R9810] Interest in multiresolution techniques for signal processing and analysis is increasing steadily. An important instance of such a technique is the so-called pyramid decomposition scheme. This report proposes a general axiomatic pyramid decomposition scheme for signal analysis and synthesis. This scheme comprises the following ingredients: (i) the pyramid consists of a (finite or infinite) number of levels such that the information content decreases towards higher levels; (ii) each step towards a higher level is constituted by an (information-reducing) analysis operator, whereas each step towards a lower level is modeled by an (information-preserving) synthesis operator. One basic assumption is necessary: synthesis followed by analysis yields the identity operator, meaning that no information is lost by these two consecutive steps. In this report, several examples are described of linear as well as nonlinear (e.g., morphological) pyramid decomposition schemes. Some of these examples are known from the literature (Laplacian pyramid, morphological granulometries, skeleton decomposition) and some of them are new (morphological Haar pyramid, median pyramid). Furthermore, the report makes a distinction between single-scale and multiscale decomposition schemes (i.e. without or with sample reduction).#[PNA-R9905] In its original form, the wavelet transform is a linear tool. However, it has been increasingly recognized that nonlinear extensions are possible. A major impulse to the development of nonlinear wavelet transforms has been given by the introduction of the lifting scheme by Sweldens. The aim of this report, which is a sequel to a previous report devoted exclusively to the pyramid transform, is to present an axiomatic framework encompassing most existing linear and nonlinear wavelet decompositions. Furthermore, it introduces some, thus far unknown, wavelets based on mathematical morphology, such as the morphological Haar wavelet, both in one and two dimensions. A general and flexible approach for the construction of nonlinear (morphological) wavelets is provided by the lifting scheme. This paper discusses one example in considerable detail, the max-lifting scheme, which has the intriguing property that it preserves local maxima in a signal over a range of scales, depending on how local or global these maxima are.