Coordination languages are a new class of parallel programming languages which manage the interactions among concurrent programs. Basically, coordination is achieved either by manipulating data values shared among all active processes or by dynamically evolving the interconnections among the processes as a consequence of observations of their state changes. The latter, also called control-driven coordination, is supported by MANIFOLD. We present the formal semantics of a kernel of MANIFOLD, based on a two-level transition system model: the first level is used to specify the ideal behavior of each single component in a MANIFOLD system, whereas the second level captures their interactions. Although we apply our two-level model in this paper to define the semantics of a control-oriented coordination language, this approach is useful for the formal studies of other coordination models and languages as well.

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Bonsangue, M.M, Arbab, F, de Bakker, J.W, Rutten, J.J.M.M, Scutellà, A, & Zavattaro, G. (1998). A transition system semantics for the control-driven coordination language MANIFOLD. Software Engineering [SEN]. CWI.