We show that certain adaptations can make other adaptations maladaptive. For example, one line of defence against an enemy can make an otherwise valuable, but subsequent line of defence detrimental. This can occur through indirect rare enemy effects.

Modelling, Analysis and Simulation [MAS]
Computational Dynamics

Planqué, R., Franks, N. R., & Britton, N. F. (2002). Rare enemies and rare friends: adaptations that make other adaptations maladaptive. Modelling, Analysis and Simulation [MAS]. CWI.