On dynamic graph algorithms with predictions
We study dynamic algorithms in the model of algorithms with predictions. We assume the algorithm is given imperfect predictions regarding future updates, and we ask how such predictions can be used to improve the running time. This can be seen as a model interpolating between classic online and offline dynamic algorithms. Our results give smooth tradeoffs between these two extreme settings. First, we give algorithms for incremental and decremental transitive closure and approximate APSP that take as an additional input a predicted sequence of updates (edge insertions, or edge deletions, respectively). They preprocess it in O~(n(3+ω)/2) time, and then handle updates in O~(1) worst-case time and queries in O~(η2) worst-case time. Here η is an error measure that can be bounded by the maximum difference between the predicted and actual insertion (deletion) time of an edge, i.e., by the ℓ∞-error of the predictions. The second group of results concerns fully dynamic problems with vertex updates, where the algorithm has access to a predicted sequence of the next n updates. We show how to solve fully dynamic triangle detection, maximum matching, single-source reachability, and more, in O(nω−1+nηi) worst-case update time. Here ηi denotes how much earlier the i-th update occurs than predicted. Our last result is a reduction that transforms a worst-case incremental algorithm without predictions into a fully dynamic algorithm which is given a predicted deletion time for each element at the time of its insertion. As a consequence we can, e.g., maintain fully dynamic exact APSP with such predictions in O~(n2) worst-case vertex insertion time and O~(n2(1+ηi)) worst-case vertex deletion time (for the prediction error ηi defined as above).
Alijeva, O., Forster, S., Nazari, Y., & Polak, A. (2023). On dynamic graph algorithms with predictions. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2307.09961