X-ray imaging is widely used for non-destructive detection of defects in industrial products on a conveyor belt. Real-time detection requires highly accurate, robust, and fast algorithms to analyze X-ray images. Deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) satisfy these requirements if a large amount of labeled data is available. To overcome the challenge of collecting these data, different methods of X-ray image generation can be considered. Depending on the desired level of similarity to real data, various physical effects either should be simulated or can be ignored. X-ray scattering is known to be computationally expensive to simulate, and this effect can heavily influence the accuracy of a generated X-ray image. We propose a methodology for quantitative evaluation of the effect of scattering on defect detection. This methodology compares the accuracy of DCNNs trained on different versions of the same data that include and exclude the scattering signal. We use the Probability of Detection (POD) curves to find the size of the smallest defect that can be detected with a DCNN and evaluate how this size is affected by the choice of training data. We apply the proposed methodology to a model problem of defect detection in cylinders. Our results show that the exclusion of the scattering signal from the training data has the largest effect on the smallest detectable defects. Furthermore, we demonstrate that accurate inspection is more reliant on high-quality training data for images with a high quantity of scattering. We discuss how the presented methodology can be used for other tasks and objects.

, , , ,
Computational Imaging

Andriiashen, V., van Liere, R., van Leeuwen, T., & Batenburg, J. (2023). Quantifying the effect of X-ray scattering for data generation in real-time defect detection. doi:10.48550/arXiv.2305.12822