A well-known method to prepare ground states of fermionic many-body Hamiltonians is adiabatic state preparation, in which an easy-to-prepare state is time-evolved towards an approximate ground state under a specific time-dependent Hamiltonian. However, which path to take in the evolution is often unclear, and a direct linear interpolation, which is the most common method, may not be optimal. In this work, we explore other types of adiabatic paths based on the spectral decomposition of the two-body projection of the residual Hamiltonian (the difference between the final and initial Hamiltonian). The decomposition defines a set of Hamiltonian terms which may be adiabatically interpolated in a piecewise or combined fashion. We demonstrate the usefulness of partially piecewise interpolation through examples involving Fermi-Hubbard models where, due to symmetries, level crossings occur in direct (fully combined) interpolation. We show that this specific deviation from a direct path appropriately breaks the relevant symmetries, thus avoiding level crossings and enabling an adiabatic passage. On the other hand, we show that a fully piecewise scheme, which interpolates every Hamiltonian term separately, exhibits a worst-case complexity of O(L6/Δ3) as compared to O(L4/Δ3) for direct interpolation, in terms of the number of one-body modes L and the minimal gap Δ along the path. This suboptimality result suggests that only those terms which break necessary symmetries should be taken into account for piecewise interpolation, while the rest is treated with direct interpolation.

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Physical Review A

van Vreumingen, D., & Schoutens, K. (2023). Adiabatic ground-state preparation of fermionic many-body systems from a two-body perspective. Physical Review A, 108(6), 062603:1–062603:14. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.108.062603