In this article we revisit smoothing bounds in parallel between lattices <italic>and</italic> codes. Initially introduced by Micciancio and Regev, these bounds were instantiated with Gaussian distributions and were crucial for arguing the security of many lattice-based cryptosystems. Unencumbered by direct application concerns, we provide a systematic study of how these bounds are obtained for both lattices <italic>and</italic> codes, transferring techniques between both areas. We also consider multiple choices of spherically symmetric noise distributions. We found that the best strategy for a worst-case bound combines Parseval&#x2019;s Identity, the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, and the second linear programming bound, and this holds for both codes and lattices and all noise distributions at hand. For an average-case analysis, the linear programming bound can be replaced by an expected value computation. This alone gives optimal results for spherically uniform noise over random codes and random lattices. This also improves prior Gaussian smoothing bounds for worst-case lattices, but surprisingly this provides even better results with uniform ball noise than for Gaussian (or Bernoulli noise for codes). This counterintuitive situation can be resolved by adequate decomposition and truncation of Gaussian and Bernoulli distributions into a superposition of uniform noise, giving further improvement for those cases, and putting them on par with the uniform cases.

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IEEE Transactions on Information Theory
Algebraic Methods for Stronger Crypto
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Debris-Alazard, T., Ducas, L., Resch, N., & Tillich, J.-P. (2023). Smoothing codes and lattices: Systematic study and new bounds. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. doi:10.1109/TIT.2023.3276921