Validation of deformable image registration techniques is extremely important, but hard, especially when complex deformations or content mismatch are involved. These complex deformations and content mismatch, for example, occur after the placement of an applicator for brachytherapy for cervical cancer. Virtual phantoms could enable the creation of validation data sets with ground truth deformations that simulate the large deformations that occur between image acquisitions. However, the quality of the multi-organ Finite Element Method (FEM)-based simulations is dependent on the patient-specific external forces and mechanical properties assigned to the organs. A common approach to calibrate these simulation parameters is through optimization, finding the parameter settings that optimize the match between the outcome of the simulation and reality. When considering inherently simplified organ models, we hypothesize that the optimal deformations of one organ cannot be achieved with a single parameter setting without compromising the optimality of the deformation of the surrounding organs. This means that there will be a trade-off between the optimal deformations of adjacent organs, such as the vagina-uterus and bladder. This work therefore proposes and evaluates a multi-objective optimization approach where the trade-off between organ deformations can be assessed after optimization. We showcase what the extent of the trade-off looks like when bi-objectively optimizing the patient-specific mechanical properties and external forces of the vagina-uterus and bladder for FEM-based simulations.

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Proceedings of SPIE
Medical Imaging

Rodriguez, C.J, de Boer, S.M, Bosman, P.A.N, & Alderliesten, T. (2023). Bi-objective optimization of organ properties for the simulation of intracavitary brachytherapy applicator placement in cervical cancer. In Proceedings of SPIE. doi:10.1117/12.2647129