In modern data warehousing, data skipping is essential for high query performance. While index structures such as B-trees or hash tables allow for precise pruning, their large storage requirements make them impractical for indexing secondary columns. Therefore, many systems rely on approximate indexes such as min/max sketches (ZoneMaps) or Bloom filters for cost-effective data pruning. For example, Google PowerDrill skips more than 90% of data on average using such indexes. In this paper, we introduce Cuckoo Index (CI), an approximate secondary index structure that represents the many-to-many relationship between keys and data partitions in a highly space-efficient way. At its core, CI associates variable-sized fingerprints in a Cuckoo filter with compressed bitmaps indicating qualifying partitions. With our approach, we target equality predicates in a read-only (immutable) setting and optimize for space efficiency under the premise of practical build and lookup performance. In contrast to per-partition (Bloom) filters, CI produces correct results for lookups with keys that occur in the data. CI allows to control the ratio of false positive partitions for lookups with non-occurring keys. Our experiments with real-world and synthetic data show that CI consumes significantly less space than per-partition filters for the same pruning power for low-to-medium cardinality columns. For high cardinality columns, CI is on par with its baselines.
Database Architectures

Kipf, A, Chromejko, D, Hall, A, Boncz, P.A, & Andersen, D.G. (2020). Cuckoo index: a lightweight secondary index structure. Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, 3559–3572. doi:10.14778/3424573.3424577