This chapter presents meta‐heuristic optimization techniques for the solution of complex power distribution system problems. These include active distribution networks (ADN) planning, optimal selection of distribution system architecture, conservation voltage reduction (CVR) planning, and dynamic distribution network expansion planning with demand side management. It also includes capacitor placement, distribution system reconfiguration and service restoration, and parameter identification of dynamic equivalents for ADNs. The chapter provides good examples of how the use of meta‐heuristic optimization techniques has improved modeling, has allowed to provide better results than with alternative models, or even has allowed to obtain results that were not previously at hand with conventional models. The chapter serves a framework for evaluating the performance of large‐scale CVR in grid planning and operations. This work supports decision‐making for ranking substations based on multiple conflicting factors such as CVR factor, network analysis, and economic impact.

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Evolutionary Intelligence

Luong, H., Bosman, P., Grond, M. O. W., & La Poutré, H. (2020). Dynamic distribution network expansion planning with demand side management. In Applications of Modern Heuristic Optimization Methods in Power and Energy Systems (pp. 427–466). doi:10.1002/9781119602286.ch5