The processing of sequential and temporal data is essential to computer vision and speech recognition, two of the most common applications of artificial intelligence (AI). Reservoir computing (RC) is a branch of AI that offers a highly efficient framework for processing temporal inputs at a low training cost compared to conventional Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). However, despite extensive effort, two-terminal memristor-based reservoirs have, until now, been implemented to process sequential data by reading their conductance states only once, at the end of the entire sequence. This method reduces the dimensionality, related to the number of signals from the reservoir and thereby lowers the overall performance of reservoir systems. Higher dimensionality facilitates the separation of originally inseparable inputs by reading out from a larger set of spatiotemporal features of inputs. Moreover, memristor-based reservoirs either use multiple pulse rates, fast or slow read (immediately or with a delay introduced after the end of the sequence), or excitatory pulses to enhance the dimensionality of reservoir states. This adds to the complexity of the reservoir system and reduces power efficiency. In this paper, we demonstrate the first reservoir computing system based on a dynamic three terminal solid electrolyte ZnO/Ta2O5 Thin-film Transistor fabricated at less than 100°C. The inherent nonlinearity and dynamic memory of the device lead to a rich separation property of reservoir states that results in, to our knowledge, the highest accuracy of 94.44%, using electronic charge-based system, for the classification of hand-written digits. This improvement is attributed to an increase in the dimensionality of the reservoir by reading the reservoir states after each pulse rather than at the end of the sequence. The third terminal enables a read operation in the off state, that is when no pulse is applied at the gate terminal, via a small read pulse at the drain. This fundamentally allows multiple read operations without increasing energy consumption, which is not possible in the conventional two-terminal memristor counterpart. Further, we have also shown that devices do not saturate even after multiple write pulses which demonstrates the device’s ability to process longer sequences.

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Frontiers in Electronics
Machine Learning

Gaurav, A, Song, X, Manhas, S, Gilra, A, Vasilaki, E, Roy, P, & De Souza, M.M. (2022). Reservoir computing for temporal data classification using a dynamic solid electrolyte ZnO thin film transistor. Frontiers in Electronics, 3(2022). doi:10.3389/felec.2022.869013