Establishing the nature of the ground state of the Heisenberg antiferromagnet (HAFM) on the kagome lattice is well-known to be a prohibitively difficult problem for classical computers. Here, we give a detailed proposal for a variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) intending to solve this physical problem on a quantum computer. At the same time, this VQE constitutes an explicit experimental proposal for showing a useful quantum advantage on noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices because of its natural hardware compatibility. We classically emulate noiseless and noisy quantum computers with either 2D-grid or all-to-all connectivity and simulate patches of the kagome HAFM of up to 20 sites. In the noiseless case, the ground-state energy, as found by the VQE, approaches the true ground-state energy exponentially as a function of the circuit depth. Furthermore, VQEs for the HAFM on any graph can inherently perform their quantum computations in a decoherence-free subspace that protects against collective longitudinal and collective transversal noise, adding to the noise resilience of these algorithms. Nevertheless, the extent of the effects of other noise types suggests the need for error mitigation and performance targets alternative to high-fidelity ground-state preparation, even for essentially hardware-native VQEs.
Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics

Kattemölle, J.J, & van Wezel, J. (2022). Variational quantum eigensolver for the Heisenberg antiferromagnet on the kagome lattice. Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 106(21). doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.106.214429