The Industry 4.0 concept promotes a digital manufacturing (DM) paradigm that can enhance quality and productivity, which reduces inventory and the lead time for delivering custom, batch-of-one products based on achieving convergence of additive, subtractive, and hybrid manufacturing machines, automation and robotic systems, sensors, computing, and communication networks, artificial intelligence, and big data. A DM system consists of embedded electronics, sensors, actuators, control software, and interconnectivity to enable the machines and the components within them to exchange data with other machines, components therein, the plant operators, the inventory managers, and customers. This article presents the cybersecurity risks in the emerging DM context, assesses the impact on manufacturing, and identifies approaches to secure DM.
Proceedings of the IEEE
Computer Security

Mahesh, P, Tiwari, A, Jin, C, Kumar, P.R, Reddy, A.L.N, Bukkapatanam, S.T, … Karri, R. (2021). A Survey of Cybersecurity of Digital Manufacturing. Proceedings of the IEEE, 109(4), 495–516. doi:10.1109/JPROC.2020.3032074