Many service providers require permissions to access privacy-sensitive data that are not necessary for their core functionality. To support users’ privacy management, we propose a novel agent-based negotiation framework to negotiate privacy permissions between users and service providers using a new multi-issue alternating-offer protocol based on exchanges of partial and complete offers. Additionally, we introduce a novel approach to learning users’ preferences in negotiation and present two variants of this approach: one variant personalised to each individual user, and one personalised depending on the user’s privacy type. To evaluate them, we perform a user study with participants, using an experimental tool installed on the participants’ mobile devices. We compare the take-it-or-leave-it approach, in which users are required to accept all permissions requested by a service, to negotiation, which respects their preferences. Our results show that users share personal data 2.5 times more often when they are able to negotiate while maintaining the same level of decision regret. Moreover, negotiation can be less mentally demanding than the take-it-or-leave-it approach and it allows users to align their privacy choices with their preferences. Finally, our findings provide insight into users’ data sharing strategies to guide the future of automated and negotiable privacy management mechanisms.

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Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems
Coordinating Multi-deal Bilateral Negotiations
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Filipczuk, D, Baarslag, T, Gerding, E.H, & Schraefel, M.C. (2022). Automated privacy negotiations with preference uncertainty. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems, 36(2), 49.1–49.38. doi:10.1007/s10458-022-09579-1