Purpose: Our purpose was to validate and compare the performance of 4 organ dose reconstruction approaches for historical radiation treatment planning based on 2-dimensional radiographs. Methods and Materials: We considered 10 patients with Wilms tumor with planning computed tomography images for whom we developed typical historic Wilms tumor radiation treatment plans, using anteroposterior and posteroanterior parallel-opposed 6 MV flank fields, normalized to 14.4 Gy. Two plans were created for each patient, with and without corner blocking. Regions of interest (lungs, heart, nipples, liver, spleen, contralateral kidney, and spinal cord) were delineated, and dose-volume metrics including organ mean and minimum dose (Dmean and Dmin) were computed as the reference baseline for comparison. Dosimetry for the 20 plans was then independently reconstructed using 4 different approaches. Three approaches involved surrogate anatomy, among which 2 used demographic-matching criteria for phantom selection/building, and 1 used machine learning. The fourth approach was also machine learning-based, but used no surrogate anatomies. Absolute differences in organ dose-volume metrics between the reconstructed and the reference values were calculated. Results: For Dmean and Dmin (average and minimum point dose) all 4 dose reconstruction approaches performed within 10% of the prescribed dose (≤1.4 Gy). The machine learning-based approaches showed a slight advantage for several of the considered regions of interest. For Dmax (maximum point dose), the absolute differences were much higher, that is, exceeding 14% (2 Gy), with the poorest agreement observed for near-beam and out-of-beam organs for all approaches. Conclusions: The studied approaches give comparable dose reconstruction results, and the choice of approach for cohort dosimetry for late effects studies should still be largely driven by the available resources (data, time, expertise, and funding).

Advances in Radiation Oncology
Multi-Objective Deformable Image Registration

Wang, Z., Virgolin, M., Balgobind, B., Dijk, van, I., Smith, S., Howell, R., … Alderliesten, T. (2022). Validation and comparison of radiograph-based organ dose reconstruction approaches for Wilms tumor radiation treatment plans. Advances in Radiation Oncology, 7(6), 101015:1–101015:12. doi:10.1016/j.adro.2022.101015