We solve the millionaires problem in the semi-trusted model with homomorphic encryption without using intermediate decryptions. This leads to the computationally least expensive solution with homomorphic encryption so far, with a low bandwidth and very low storage complexity. The number of modular multiplications needed is less than the number of modular multiplications needed for one Pallier encryption. The output of the protocol can be either publicly known, encrypted, or secret-shared. The private input of the first player is computationally secure towards the second player, and the private input of the second player is even unconditionally secure towards the first player. We also introduce an efficient client-server solution for the millionaires problem with similar security properties.

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Veugen, P.J.M. (2022). Lightweight secure integer comparison. Mathematics, 10(3), 305.1–305.18. doi:10.3390/math10030305