Radiation controls the dynamics and energetics of many astrophysical environments. To capture the coupling between the radiation and matter, however, is often a physically complex and computationally expensive endeavor. Aims. We sought to develop a numerical tool to perform radiation-hydrodynamics simulations in various configurations at an affordable cost. Methods. We built upon the finite volume code MPI-AMRVAC to solve the equations of hydrodynamics on multi-dimensional adaptive meshes and introduce a new module to handle the coupling with radiation. A non-equilibrium, flux-limiting diffusion approximation was used to close the radiation momentum and energy equations. The time-dependent radiation energy equation was then solved within a flexible framework, fully accounting for radiation forces and work terms and further allowing the user to adopt a variety of descriptions for the radiation-matter interaction terms ("opacities"). Results. We validated the radiation module on a set of standard test cases for which different terms of the radiative energy equation predominate. As a preliminary application to a scientific case, we calculated spherically symmetric models of the radiation-driven and optically thick supersonic outflows from massive Wolf-Rayet stars. This also demonstrates our code's flexibility, as the illustrated simulation combines opacities typically used in static stellar structure models with a parametrized form for the enhanced line-opacity expected in supersonic flows. Conclusions. This new module provides a convenient and versatile tool for performing multi-dimensional and high-resolution radiative-hydrodynamics simulations in optically thick environments with the MPI-AMRVAC code. The code is ready to be used for a variety of astrophysical applications, where our first target is set to be multi-dimensional simulations of stellar outflows from Wolf-Rayet stars.

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Astronomy and Astrophysics
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Moens, N, Sundqvist, J.O, El Mellah, I, Poniatowski, L, Teunissen, H.J, & Keppens, R. (2022). Radiation-hydrodynamics with MPI-AMRVAC: Flux-limited diffusion. Astronomy and Astrophysics, 657, A81.1–A81.14. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/202141023