Curvelet frame is of special significance for photoacoustic tomography (PAT) due to its sparsifying and microlocalisation properties. We derive a one-to-one map between wavefront directions in image and data spaces in PAT which suggests near equivalence between the recovery of the initial pressure and PAT data from compressed/subsampled measurements when assuming sparsity in Curvelet frame. As the latter is computationally more tractable, investigation to which extent this equivalence holds conducted in this paper is of immediate practical significance. To this end we formulate and compare DR, a two step approach based on the recovery of the complete volume of the photoacoustic data from the subsampled data followed by the acoustic inversion, and {p_0bf {R}}, a one step approach where the photoacoustic image (the initial pressure, p_0) is directly recovered from the subsampled data. Effective representation of the photoacoustic data requires basis defined on the range of the photoacoustic forward operator. To this end we propose a novel wedge-restriction of Curvelet transform which enables us to construct such basis. Both recovery problems are formulated in a variational framework. As the Curvelet frame is heavily overdetermined, we use reweighted ell 1 norm penalties to enhance the sparsity of the solution. The data reconstruction problem DR is a standard compressed sensing recovery problem, which we solve using an ADMM-type algorithm, SALSA. Subsequently, the initial pressure is recovered using time reversal as implemented in the k-Wave Toolbox. The p_0 reconstruction problem, {p_0bf {R}}, aims to recover the photoacoustic image directly via FISTA, or ADMM when in addition including a non-negativity constraint. We compare and discuss the relative merits of the two approaches and illustrate them on 2D simulated and 3D real data in a fair and rigorous manner.

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IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging

Pan, B, Arridge, S, Lucka, F, Cox, B.T, Huynh, N, Beard, P, … Betcke, M. (2021). Photoacoustic reconstruction using sparsity in Curvelet frame: Image versus data domain. IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging, 7, 879–893. doi:10.1109/TCI.2021.3103606