To reduce carbon emission in the transportation sector, there is currently a steady move taking place to an electrified transportation system. This brings about various issues for which a promising solution involves the construction and operation of a battery swapping infrastructure rather than in-vehicle charging of batteries. In this paper, we study a closed Markovian queueing network that allows for spare batteries under a dynamic arrival policy. We propose a provisioning rule for the capacity levels and show that these lead to near-optimal resource utilization, while guaranteeing good quality-of-service levels for electric vehicle users. Key in the derivations is to prove a state-space collapse result, which in turn implies that performance levels are as good as if there would have been a single station with an aggregated number of resources, thus achieving complete resource pooling.

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Riverlane, Cambridge, UK
Queueing Systems
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Sloothaak, F., Cruise, J., Shneer, S., Vlasiou, M., & Zwart, B. (2021). Complete resource pooling of a load-balancing policy for a network of battery swapping stations. Queueing Systems, 99, 65–120. doi:10.1007/s11134-021-09707-w