Stochastic parameterizations are increasingly being used in climate modeling to represent subgrid‐scale processes. While different parameterizations are being developed considering different aspects of the physical phenomena, less attention is given to technical and numerical aspects. In particular,empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) are employed when a spatial structure is required. Here, we provide evidence they might not be the most suitable choice. By applying an energy‐consistent parameterization to the two‐layer quasi‐geostrophic (QG) model, we investigate the model sensitivity to apriori assumptions made on the parameterization. In particular, we consider here two methods to prescribe the spatial covariance of the noise:first, by using climatological variability patterns provided by EOFs,and second, by using time‐varying dynamics‐adapted Koopman modes, approximated by dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). The performance of the two methods are analyzed through numerical simulations of the stochastic system on a coarse spatial resolution and the outcomes compared to a high‐resolution simulation of the original deterministic system. The comparison reveals that the DMD‐based noise covariance scheme outperforms the EOF‐based one. The use of EOFs leads to a significant increase of the ensemble spread and to a meridional misplacement of the bimodal eddy kinetic energy (EKE) distribution.Conversely, using DMDs, the ensemble spread is confined, the meridional propagation of the zonal jet stream is accurately captured, and the total variance of the system is improved. Our results highlight the importance of the systematic design of stochastic parameterizations with dynamically adapted spatial correlations, rather than relying on statistical spatial patterns.
Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Scientific Computing

Gugole, F., & Franzke, C. (2020). Spatial covariance modeling for stochastic subgrid-scale parameterizations using dynamic mode decomposition. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems, 12. doi:10.1029/2020MS002115