Hard X-ray nanotomography enables 3D investigations of a wide range of samples with high resolution (<100 nm) with both synchrotron-based and laboratory-based setups. However, the advantage of synchrotron-based setups is the high flux, enabling time resolution, which cannot be achieved at laboratory sources. Here, the nanotomography setup at the imaging beamline P05 at PETRA III is presented, which offers high time resolution not only in absorption but for the first time also in Zernike phase contrast. Two test samples are used to evaluate the image quality in both contrast modalities based on the quantitative analysis of contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and spatial resolution. High-quality scans can be recorded in 15 min and fast scans down to 3 min are also possible without significant loss of image quality. At scan times well below 3 min, the CNR values decrease significantly and classical image-filtering techniques reach their limitation. A machine-learning approach shows promising results, enabling acquisition of a full tomography in only 6 s. Overall, the transmission X-ray microscopy instrument offers high temporal resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast, enabling in situ experiments at the beamline.

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Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
Machine learning for large 3D tomographic images
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Flenner, S, Storm, M, Kubec, A, Longo, E, Doring, F, Pelt, D.M, … Greving, I. (2020). Pushing the temporal resolution in absorption and Zernike phase contrast nanotomography: Enabling fast in situ experiments. Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, 27, 1339–1346. doi:10.1107/S1600577520007407