We present an automatic bi-objective parameter-tuning approach for inverse planning methods for high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy, which aims to overcome the difficult and time-consuming manual parameter tuning that is currently required to obtain patient-specific high-quality treatment plans. We modelled treatment planning as a bi-objective optimization problem, in which dose-volume-based planning criteria related to target coverage are explicitly separated from organ-sparing criteria. When this model is optimized, a large set of high-quality plans with different trade-offs can be obtained. This set can be visualized as an insightful patient-specific trade-off curve. In our parameter-tuning approach, the parameters of inverse planning methods are automatically tuned, aimed to maximize the two objectives of the bi-objective planning model. By generating trade-off curves for different inverse planning methods, their maximally achievable plan quality can be insightfully compared. Automatic parameter tuning furthermore allows to construct standard parameter sets (class solutions) representing different trade-offs in a principled way, which can be directly used in current clinical practice. In this work, we considered the inverse planning methods IPSA and HIPO. Thirty-nine previously treated prostate cancer patients were included. We compared automatic parameter tuning, random parameter sampling, and the maximally achievable plan quality obtained by directly optimizing the bi-objective planning model with the state-of-the-art optimization software GOMEA. We showed that for each patient, a set of plans with a wide range of trade-offs could be obtained using automatic parameter tuning for both IPSA and HIPO. By tuning HIPO, better trade-offs were obtained than by tuning IPSA. For most patients, automatic tuning of HIPO resulted in plans close to the maximally achievable plan quality obtained by optimizing the bi-objective planning model directly. Automatic parameter tuning was shown to improve plan quality significantly compared to random parameter sampling. Finally, from the automatically-tuned plans, three class solutions were successfully constructed representing different trade-offs.

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Physics in Medicine and Biology
ICT based Innovations in the Battle against Cancer – Next - Generation Patient -Tailored Brachytherapy Cancer Treatment Planning

Maree, S., Bosman, P., van Wieringen, N., Niatsetski, Y., Pieters, B., Bel, A., & Alderliesten, T. (2020). Automatic bi-objective parameter tuning for inverse planning of high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. Physics in Medicine and Biology, 65(7). doi:10.1088/1361-6560/ab7362