Weak approximate unitary designs and applications to quantum encryption
Unitary t-designs are the bread and butter of quantum information theory and beyond. An important issue in practice is that of efficiently constructing good approximations of such unitary t-designs. Building on results by Aubrun (Comm. Math. Phys. 2009), we prove that sampling dtpoly(t,logd,1/ϵ) unitaries from an exact t-design provides with positive probability an ϵ-approximate t-design, if the error is measured in one-to-one norm distance of the corresponding t-twirling channels. As an application, we give a partially derandomized construction of a quantum encryption scheme that has roughly the same key size and security as the quantum one-time pad, but possesses the additional property of being non-malleable against adversaries without quantum side information.