Quantum Pascal's triangle and Sierpinski's carpet
In this paper we consider a quantum version of Pascal's triangle. Pascal's triangle is a well-known triangular array of numbers and when these numbers are plotted modulo 2, a fractal known as the Sierpinski triangle appears. We first prove the appearance of more general fractals when Pascal's triangle is considered modulo prime powers. The numbers in Pascal's triangle can be obtained by scaling the probabilities of the simple symmetric random walk on the line. In this paper we consider a quantum version of Pascal's triangle by replacing the random walk by the quantum walk known as the Hadamard walk. We show that when the amplitudes of the Hadamard walk are scaled to become integers and plotted modulo three, a fractal known as the Sierpinski carpet emerges and we provide a proof of this using Lucas's theorem. We furthermore give a general class of quantum walks for which this phenomenon occurs.
Bannink, T.R, & Buhrman, H.M. (2017). Quantum Pascal's triangle and Sierpinski's carpet.