This paper presents a formalization of refraining from actions and a deontic logic based on a process logic. The notion of refraining is needed to handle obligated actions. To refrain to do an action is to do something else. The process logic used is a mix of dynamic logic and temporal logic: actions in it are interpreted as sets of paths and temporal formulas describe the process of performing actions. The deontic logic has a temporal propositional constant saying that a bad thing will be done in the next moment. Normative properties of actions can be defined according to what happens in the process of performing actions.

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doi.org/10.1093/logcom/exy008
Journal of Logic and Computation
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Ju, F, & van Eijck, D.J.N. (2018). A temporal dynamic deontic logic. Journal of Logic and Computation, 29(2), 265–284. doi:10.1093/logcom/exy008