Predictive coding has been argued as a mechanism underlying sensory processing in the brain. In computational models of predictive coding, the brain is described as a machine that constructs and continuously adapts a generative model based on the stimuli received from external environment. It uses this model to infer causes that generated the received stimuli. However, it is not clear how predictive coding can be used to construct deep neural network models of the brain while complying with the architectural constraints imposed by the brain. Here, we describe an algorithm to construct a deep generative model that can be used to infer causes behind the stimuli received from external environment. Specifically, we train a deep neural network on real-world images in an unsupervised learning paradigm. To understand the capacity of the network with regards to modeling the external environment, we studied the causes inferred using the trained model on images of objects that are not used in training. Despite the novel features of these objects the model is able to infer the causes for them. Furthermore, the reconstructions of the original images obtained from the generative model using these inferred causes preserve important details of these objects.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Deep generative models, Predictive coding
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-01424-7_45
Series Lecture Notes in Computer Science
Conference International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks
Citation
Dora, S, Pennartz, C, & Bohte, S.M. (2018). A deep predictive coding network for inferring hierarchical causes underlying sensory inputs. In Lecture Notes in Computer Science/Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence (pp. 457–467). doi:10.1007/978-3-030-01424-7_45