We consider the problem of a particular kind of quantum correlation that arises in some two-party games. In these games, one player is presented with a question they must answer, yielding an outcome of either “win” or “lose”. Molina and Watrous [30] studied such a game that exhibited a perfect form of hedging, where the risk of losing a first game can completely o set the corresponding risk for a second game. This is a non-classical quantum phenomenon, and establishes the impossibility of performing strong error-reduction for quantum interactive proof systems by parallel repetition, unlike for classical interactive proof systems. We take a step in this article towards a better understanding of the hedging phenomenon by giving a complete characterization of when perfect hedging is possible for a natural generalization of the game in [30]. Exploring in a di erent direction the subject of quantum hedging, and motivated by implementation concerns regarding loss-tolerance, we also consider a variation of the protocol where the player who receives the question can choose to restart the game rather than return an answer. We show that in this setting there is no possible hedging for any game played with state spaces corresponding to finite-dimensional complex Euclidean spaces.

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Leibniz International Proceedings in Informatics
12th Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication, and Cryptography, TQC 2017
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam (CWI), The Netherlands

Arunachalam, S, Molina, A, & Russo, V. (2018). Quantum hedging in two-round prover-verifier interactions. In Conference on the Theory of Quantum Computation, Communication and Cryptography (pp. 5:1–5:30). doi:10.4230/LIPIcs.TQC.2017.5