Taking a multi-objective optimization approach to deformable image registration has recently gained attention, because such an approach removes the requirement of manually tuning the weights of all the involved objectives. Especially for problems that require large complex deformations, this is a non-trivial task. From the resulting Pareto set of solutions one can then much more insightfully select a registration outcome that is most suitable for the problem at hand. To serve as an internal optimization engine, currently used multi-objective algorithms are competent, but rather inefficient. In this paper we largely improve upon this by introducing a multi-objective real-valued adaptation of the recently introduced Gene-pool Optimal Mixing Evolutionary Algorithm (GOMEA) for discrete optimization. In this work, GOMEA is tailored specifically to the problem of deformable image registration to obtain substantially improved efficiency. This improvement is achieved by exploiting a key strength of GOMEA: iteratively improving small parts of solutions, allowing to faster exploit the impact of such updates on the objectives at hand through partial evaluations. We performed experiments on three registration problems. In particular, an artificial problem containing a disappearing structure, a pair of pre- and post-operative breast CT scans, and a pair of breast MRI scans acquired in prone and supine position were considered. Results show that compared to the previously used evolutionary algorithm, GOMEA obtains a speed-up of up to a factor of ∼1600 on the tested registration problems while achieving registration outcomes of similar quality.

Content mismatch, Deformable image registration, Evolutionary algorithms, Large anatomical differences, Multi-objective optimization, Partial evaluations
ICT based Innovations in the Battle against Cancer – Next - Generation Patient -Tailored Brachytherapy Cancer Treatment Planning
SPIE Medical Imaging: Imaging Informatics for Healthcare, Research, and Applications
This work was funded by the The Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO); grant id nwo/628.006.003 - ICT based Innovations in the Battle against Cancer – Next - Generation Patient -Tailored Brachytherapy Cancer Treatment Planning
Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Bouter, P.A, Alderliesten, T, & Bosman, P.A.N. (2017). A novel model-based evolutionary algorithm for multi-objective deformable image registration with content mismatch and large deformations: Benchmarking efficiency and quality. In Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE. doi:10.1117/12.2254144