We present a novel, automated way to find differential paths for MD5. Its main application is in the construction of \emph{chosen-prefix collisions}. We have shown how, at an approximate expected cost of $2^{39}$ calls to the MD5 compression function, for any two chosen message prefixes $P$ and $P'$, suffixes $S$ and $S'$ can be constructed such that the concatenated values $P\|S$ and $P'\|S'$ collide under MD5. The practical attack potential of this construction of chosen-prefix collisions is of greater concern than the MD5-collisions that were published before. This is illustrated by a pair of MD5-based X.509 certificates one of which was signed by a commercial Certification Authority (CA) as a legitimate website certificate, while the other one is a certificate for a rogue CA that is entirely under our control (cf.\ \url{http://www.win.tue.nl/hashclash/rogue-ca/}). Other examples, such as MD5-colliding executables, are presented as well. More details can be found on \url{http://www.win.tue.nl/hashclash/ChosenPrefixCollisions/}.

Inderscience Publishers
International Journal of Applied Cryptography
Cryptanalysis of Widely-used Hash Function Standards and Beyond

Stevens, M., Lenstra, A., & de Weger, B. (2012). Chosen-Prefix Collisions for MD5 and Applications. International Journal of Applied Cryptography, 2(4), 322–359.