We investigate structure and evolution of long positive spark breakdown; and we study at which stage pulses of hard x-rays are emitted. Positive high-voltage pulses of standardized lightning impulse wave form of about 1 MV were applied to about 1 m of ambient air. The discharge evolution was imaged with a resolution of tens of nanoseconds with an intensified CCD camera. LaBr3(Ce+) scintillation detectors recorded the x-rays emitted during the process. The voltage and the currents on both electrodes were measured synchronously. All measurements indicate that first a large and dense corona of positive streamers emerges from the high-voltage electrode. When they approach the grounded electrode, negative counter-streamers emerge there, and the emission of hard x-rays coincides with the connection of the positive streamers with the negative counter-streamers. Leaders are seen to form only at later stages.

Energy (theme 4)
Institute of Physics
Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics
Multiscale Dynamics

Kochkin, P.O, Nguyen, C.V, van Deursen, A, & Ebert, U. (2012). Experimental study of hard X-rays emitted from meter-scale positive discharges in air. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 45(42).