Jensen-Shannon divergence (JD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of the most important divergence measure of information theory, Kullback divergence. As opposed to Kullback divergence it determines in a very direct way a metric; indeed, it is the square of a metric. We consider a family of divergence measures (JD_alpha for alpha>0), the Jensen divergences of order alpha, which generalize JD as JD_1=JD. Using a result of Schoenberg, we prove that JD_alpha is the square of a metric for alpha lies in the interval (0,2], and that the resulting metric space of probability distributions can be isometrically embedded in a real Hilbert space. Quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence (QJD) is a symmetrized and smoothed version of quantum relative entropy and can be extended to a family of quantum Jensen divergences of order alpha (QJD_alpha). We strengthen results by Lamberti et al. by proving that for qubits and pure states, QJD_alpha^1/2 is a metric space which can be isometrically embedded in a real Hilbert space when alpha lies in the interval (0,2]. In analogy with Burbea and Rao's generalization of JD, we also define general QJD by associating a Jensen-type quantity to any weighted family of states. Appropriate interpretations of quantities introduced are discussed and bounds are derived in terms of the total variation and trace distance.
Additional Metadata
Keywords Quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence, Kullback divergence, Schoenberg's Theorem
MSC Applications in statistical physics (msc 46N55)
Publisher American Physical Society
Journal Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics
Citation
Briët, J, & Harremoës, P. (2009). Properties of classical and quantum Jensen-Shannon divergence. Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 79(5).