Unconditionally stable integration of Maxwell's equations
Linear Algebra and its Applications , Volume 431 p. 300- 317
Numerical integration of Maxwell’s equations is often based on explicit methods accepting a stability step size restriction. In literature evidence is given that there is also a need for unconditionally stable methods, as exemplified by the successful alternating direction implicit – finite difference time domain scheme. In this paper, we discuss unconditionally stable integration for a general semidiscrete Maxwell system allowing non-Cartesian space grids as encountered in finite-element discretizations. Such grids exclude the alternating direction implicit approach. Particular attention is given to the second-order trapezoidal rule implemented with preconditioned conjugate gradient iteration and to second-order exponential integration using Krylov subspace iteration for evaluating the arising ϕ-functions. A three-space dimensional test problem is used for numerical assessment and comparison with an economical second-order implicit–explicit integrator.