Linear PDEs and numerical methods that preserve a multi-symplectic conservation law
SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing , Volume 28 p. 260- 277
Multisymplectic methods have recently been proposed as a generalization of symplectic ODE methods to the case of Hamiltonian PDEs. Their excellent long time behavior for a variety of Hamiltonian wave equations has been demonstrated in a number of numerical studies. A theoretical investigation and justification of multisymplectic methods is still largely missing. In this paper, we study linear multisymplectic PDEs and their discretization by means of numerical dispersion relations. It is found that multisymplectic methods in the sense of Bridges and Reich Phys. Lett. A, 284 (2001), pp. 184-193] and Reich J. Comput. Phys., 157 (2000), pp. 473-499], such as Gauss-Legendre Runge-Kutta methods, possess a number of desirable properties such as nonexistence of spurious roots and conservation of the sign of the group velocity. A certain CFL-type restriction on $\Delta t/\Delta x$ might be required for methods higher than second order in time. It is also demonstrated by means of the explicit midpoint method that multistep methods may exhibit spurious roots in the numerical dispersion relation for any value of $\Delta t/\Delta x$ despite being multisymplectic in the sense of discrete variational mechanics [J. E. Marsden, G. P. Patrick, and S. Shkoller, Commun. Math. Phys., 199 (1999), pp. 351-395].
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Frank, J.E, Moore, B.E, & Reich, S. (2006). Linear PDEs and numerical methods that preserve a multi-symplectic conservation law. SIAM Journal on Scientific Computing, 28, 260–277. doi:10.1137/050628271